蒋富国,郭宗林,王亚璐,陈潇奕,王国兵,2023,中国东南部农区蚂蚁物种多样性研究[J].环境昆虫学报,45(5):1245-1251
中国东南部农区蚂蚁物种多样性研究
Ant species diversity in agricultural areas in Southeastern China
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  蚁科  群落  生物多样性  农区
英文关键词:Formicidae  community  biodiversity  agricultural area
基金项目:科技部基础资源调查专项(2018FY100305)
作者单位
蒋富国,郭宗林,王亚璐,陈潇奕,王国兵 南京林业大学南方现代林业协同创新中心南京210000 
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中文摘要:
      为探清我国东南部农区内蚂蚁物种多样性,本研究共设置86个采样单元格,每个单元格内选择农田、草地和人工林3种生境,每种生境设置3个重复样地,每个重复生境设置5个1 m2的重复采样样方,用吸虫器采集样方内的地表蚂蚁。结果表明:在我国东南部农区共采集鉴定地表蚂蚁30 077头,隶属于7亚科49属155种;长江中下游地区共采集蚂蚁5亚科34属93种,其中优势种3个,常见种9个,稀有种81个;华南地区采集蚂蚁7亚科42属124种,其中优势种2个,常见种11个,稀有种111个。红火蚁Solenopsis invicta Buren是华南地区个体数目最多的物种,占个体总数的39.40%;物种数目、个体密度、多样性指数和优势度指数均表现为华南地区>长江中下游地区;不同生境内蚂蚁群落的物种数目、多样性指数和均匀度指数表现为人工林>草地>农田,个体密度和优势度指数人工林生境最低;两个地区3种生境蚂蚁群落间相似性系数0.2437~0.6581,处于极不相似至中等相似水平。结果表明,我国东南部农区蚂蚁种类丰富,在农区的生物多样性保护中具有重要价值;红火蚁在华南地区入侵扩散严重,亟需治理;农区内不同土地利用方式造成的生境差异影响蚂蚁群落的物种组成和多样性;不同区域、不同生境的蚂蚁群落间差异明显。
英文摘要:
      To explore the ant species diversity in agricultural areas in Southeastern China, the study set 86 sample grids. We selected three different habitats: Farmland, grassland, and plantation in each grid. Three repeated sample areas were set in each habitat. Five 1 m2 repeated sample plots were set in each repeated habitat, and collect the surface ants by insect suction sampler. The results showed that there were 30 077 ants belonging to 155 species, 49 genera and 7 subfamilies were collected in agricultural areas in southeastern China. There were 93 species, 34 genera, and 5 subfamilies of Formicidae including 3 dominant species, 9 common species, and 81 rare species in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River; There were 124 species, 42 genera, and 7 subfamilies of Formicidae including 2 dominant species, 11 common species, and 111 rare species in the South China. Solenopsis invicta Buren had the most individual numbers, accounting for 39.40% of the total ants in South China. Species numbers, individual densities, diversity indexes and evenness indexes of the ant community in the South China are all larger than Middle and Lower Yangtze River. Species numbers, diversity indexes and evenness indexes of the ant community in the different habitats showed that: Plantation> grassland> farmland. The individual densities and dominant indexes of the ant community in the plantation was the lowest among three habitats. Similarity coefficients between ant communities 0.2437~0.6581, which representing extremely dissimilar to moderately similar level. It was concluded that there were rich ant species living in agricultural areas in Southeastern China and have important value in biodiversity conservation. S. invicta have invaded and spread seriously in South China and need to be controlled as soon as possible. Habitat differences caused by different land use patterns in agricultural areas affected the species composition and diversity of ant communities. There were obvious differences between ant communities in different regions and different habitats.
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