赵恬,王胤晨,袁扬,韦小平,张定红,姚丹,张锦华,2021,中华蜜蜂对猕猴桃的访花行为及授粉效果研究[J].环境昆虫学报,(3):667-675
中华蜜蜂对猕猴桃的访花行为及授粉效果研究
Study on the flower-visiting behavior and pollination effect by Apis cerana cerana on kiwi fruit
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  中华蜜蜂  猕猴桃  授粉  访花规律  果实品质
英文关键词:Apis cerana cerana  kiwi fruit  pollination  flower visiting law  fruit quality
基金项目:贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2019]2294);贵州省科技厅基金项目(黔科合基础[2019]1453);贵州省科技厅科技支撑项目[黔科合支撑2018(2283)];国家蜂产业技术体系建设项目(CARS-44-SYZ8)
作者单位
赵恬,王胤晨,袁扬,韦小平,张定红,姚丹,张锦华 1. 贵州省畜牧兽医研究所贵阳 5500022. 贵州省现代农业发展研究所贵阳 550006 
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中文摘要:
      本研究采用中华蜜蜂 Apis cerana cerana (简称“中蜂”)为猕猴桃授粉,研究中蜂对猕猴桃的访花授粉行为规律,以及中蜂授粉对猕猴桃果实生长发育及品质的影响,以期为规范猕猴桃中蜂授粉和产业提质增效提供理论依据。结果表明:中蜂既采集雄花又采集雌花,每日的访花活动时间为7∶40-19∶30,访花的温度区间为18.9~31.2℃,湿度区间为21% ~ 76%。对单朵花的平均访问时间为25±5.77 s,62%±0.82%的中蜂单花访问时间分布在20~30 s。中蜂日访花活动的高峰时段为11∶00-12∶00,携粉回巢的高峰时段为11∶00-11∶20,携粉回巢蜂的数量随温度和湿度的变化规律均呈正态分布,分别符合方程y=14.36-25.58 (x-24.81)^2e/π(R2=0.924)和 y=12.67-0.96 (x-53.90)^2e/π(R^2=0.858),且在温度22.5~26.3℃、湿度43% ~ 67%区间内数量达到高峰。经中蜂授粉的果实座果率、纵径、横径及侧径增长速率、单果重、可溶性固形物、总糖含量、固酸比、糖酸比和维生素C含量均显著高于人工授粉组(P<0.05),畸形率和果实硬度显著低于人工授粉组(P<0.05)。本研究得出中蜂授粉可提高猕猴桃产量,改善果实品质,在生产中可代替人工授粉以获得更高的经济效益。
英文摘要:
      Apis cerana cerana were used to pollinate for kiwi fruit, to explore the pollination behavior rule, and the influence of A. cerana pollination on the kiwi fruit growth and quality to provide theoretical support for regulate A. cerana pollination management and improve quality and efficiency. The results indicated that: A. cerana visit both male and female flowers, the time of A. cerana visiting activity was 7∶40 a.m.-19∶30 p.m., the temperature range of visiting flowers was 18.9~31.2℃ and the humidity range was 21%~76%. The average visit time of single flower was 25±5.77 s, and 62%±0.82% of the single flower visit time were distributed in 20~30 s. The peak time of the visiting activities were 11∶00-12∶00, the peak time of bringing powder back to the nest ware 11∶00-11∶20, the number of powered bees returned to the nest with temperature and humidity showed a normal distribution, respectively in accordance with: y=14.36-25.58(x-24.81)2e/π ( R2=0.924)and y=12.67-0.96(x-53.90)2e/π(R2=0.858). The quantity reached its peak in the temperature range of 22.5~26.3℃ and humidity range of 43%~67%. Set percentage, growth rate of longitudinal diameter, transverse diameter and lateral diameter, fruit weight, soluble solid content, total sugar content, solid acid ratio, sugar acid ratio and vitamin C content of kiwi fruit pollinated by A. cerana were significantly higher than that of artificial pollination(P<0.05), deformity rate and firmness of fruit were significantly lower than that of artificial pollination(P<0.05). This study concluded that A. cerana pollination can improve the yield and fruit quality of kiwi fruit, and can replace artificial pollination in production to obtain higher economic benefits.
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