河南新乡小麦区荻草谷网蚜Sitobion miscanthi的冬季耐寒性研究
Analysis on chilling-tolerance of Sitobion miscanthi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in winter in wheat area of Xinxiang County, Henan province
投稿时间:2021-09-16  修订日期:2021-10-13
DOI:
中文关键词:  荻草谷网蚜  耐寒性  过冷却点  存活率  冷识别温度
英文关键词:Sitobion miscanthi  cold tolerance  supercooling point  survival rate  discriminating temperature
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作者单位地址
王雪芹 河南省农业科学院植物保护研究所 河南省郑州市金水区花园路116号
武予清 河南省农业科学院植物保护研究所 河南省郑州市金水区花园路116号
蒋月丽 河南省农业科学院植物保护研究所 
李 彤 河南省农业科学院植物保护研究所 
巩中军 河南省农业科学院植物保护研究所 
苗 进 河南省农业科学院植物保护研究所 
段 云 河南省农业科学院植物保护研究所 
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中文摘要:
      为荻草谷网蚜 Sitobion miscanthi的准确预测预报提供理论依据,本研究利用过冷却点(Supercooling point, SCP)、低温暴露死亡率和冷识别温度(80%死亡率时的温度)等昆虫耐寒性指标评价低温条件下不同发育阶段该虫的耐寒能力。结果表明,荻草谷网蚜各发育阶段的SCP变化范围为-27.10~-12.23℃,SCP为1龄若蚜>2龄若蚜>有翅孤雌成蚜>无翅孤雌成蚜>4龄若蚜>3龄若蚜,其中 1 龄和2龄若蚜的SCP均显著高于3龄和4龄的SCP(P<0.01),3龄和4龄若蚜的SCP无显著性差异(P>0.05),无翅孤雌成蚜与其它发育阶段蚜虫的SCP均无显著性差异(P>0.05);两种虫态的低温存活率和冷识别温度分析表明,在-10~-8℃不同低温下,荻草谷网蚜1龄若蚜低温存活率均显著高于初羽化有翅成蚜的低温存活率(P<0.05),1龄若蚜和初羽化有翅成蚜的冷识别温度分别为-8.5℃和-7.9℃左右;两种虫态在0℃经过4 h冷驯化后,1龄若蚜和初羽化有翅成蚜在2 h的存活率提升最高,分别为62%和64%,均显著高于无冷驯化的对照组(P<0.05)。总之,本研究结果充分说明了荻草谷网蚜具有极强的耐低温适应能力,结合河南新乡近5年冬季极端低温数据,我们推测该虫能在冬季极端低温高于其冷识别温度的年份在当地越冬。
英文摘要:
      Indian grain aphid, Sitobion miscanthi (Takahashi) (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a dangerous pest which mainly attacks wheat and has led to great damage in China. In order to understand the adaptability of the species to low temperature and provide a theoretical reference for its prediction, in this study, the supercooling point (SCP), mortality exposed to designated low temperatures and discriminating temperatures of adults and nymphs at different developmental stages were measured and compared by collecting the adults in fields in wheat area of Xinxiang County, Henan province, and rearing them under indoor conditions. The results showed that the SCP values at different developmental stages of the species were the first instar nymph > the second instar nymph > alate parthenogenetic female adult > apterous parthenogenetic female adult > the fourth instar nymph > the third instar nymph, and the variation range of SCP values was from -27.10 ~-12.23oC. The SCP value of the third instar nymph was significantly lower than that of other nymphs and adults, except for the fourth instar nymph. There were no significant differences in the SCP values of the third and fourth instar nymphs, and between the apterous femal adult and other adult or nymph at different developmental stages. The analysis of survival rate for low temperature and cold recognition temperature showed that the low temperature survival rate from -10 to -8 oC in the first instar nymphs was significantly higher than that of the newly moulted alate adults; and the discriminating temperatures (80% mortality) for the two stages remained around -8.5 oC and -7.9 oC, respectively. After cold acclimation at 0 oC for 4 h, the survival rates of the first instar nymph and the newly moulted alate adult increased the highest at 2 h, 62% and 64%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control without cold acclimation. It is concluded that the chilling cold tolerance of Sitobion miscanthi population seems to show strong low temperature adaptability. Meanwhile, considering the extreme low temperature in the winter of Xinxiang County in recent 5 years, we speculate that the alate adults of the species can overwinter locally in the year when the extreme low temperature in winter is higher than its discriminating temperature.
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