张 敏,谢 华,杨 培,李成星,李宗波,2021,鸡嗉子榕小蜂繁殖资源的空间结构与食性关系[J].环境昆虫学报,(4):959-966
鸡嗉子榕小蜂繁殖资源的空间结构与食性关系
Spatial structuring and diet implication of reproductive resources of galls for the associated chalcidoid wasps in the fig tree Ficus semicordata
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  鸡嗉子榕,榕小蜂群落  瘿花  空间层次性  营养级联  食物网
英文关键词:Ficus semicordata  fig wasp community  galls  spatial stratification  trophic interactions  food web
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 (31760107) ; 云南省农业基础研究重点项目 (2018FG001-010) ; 云南省“高层次人才培养支持计划”青年拔尖人才项目 (51900110) ; 云南省教育厅科学研究基金 (2019J1067)
作者单位
张 敏,谢 华,杨 培,李成星,李宗波 1. 西南林业大学生物多样性保护学院/云南省森林灾害预警与控制重点实验室昆明 650224
2. 云南中医药大学昆明 650500 
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中文摘要:
      榕蜂繁殖共生体是榕小蜂与榕树因营养级联而形成的多功能群落,被认为是定量研究群落组装与驱动机制 的优良模型。本文以鸡嗉子榕 Ficus semicordata Buchanan - Hamilton ex Smith 果内寄生的 5 种榕小蜂及其繁殖资源 为研究对象,综合应用路径分析和混合线性模型,构建营养级联关系,解析不同功能类群间的瘿花资源占用和生态位分化,以探讨物种食性及其互作关系。结果发现: 单果内寄生的鸡嗉子榕小蜂一般有 3 种或 4 种,占比分别为 37.06% 或 35.53%,以传粉者窝榕小蜂 Ceratosolen gravelyi Grandi、寄生者伪鞘榕小蜂 Sycoscapter trifemmensis Joseph 和寄居者拉长鞘榕小蜂 Sycophaga cunia Joseph 最为常见,每种榕小蜂的种群数量也存在巨大差异。寄居者妃延腹榕小蜂 Philotrypesis dunia Joseph 和拉长鞘榕小蜂、寄生者伪鞘榕小蜂直接作用于窝榕小蜂,寄生者缩腹榕小蜂 Aprocrypta sp. 则寄生于妃延腹榕小蜂,而拉长鞘榕小蜂与妃延腹榕小蜂之间有负相关关系。不同榕小蜂所占用的瘿花具有明显的空间层次性,其中传粉者窝榕小蜂位于最外层,而非传粉榕小蜂则位于中下层,每种雄蜂均比同种雌蜂更靠近外层,但每种榕小蜂及其雌雄两性繁殖瘿花的大小均没有差异,表明造瘿者、寄居者和寄生者所组成的功能类群,在一定程度上反映了榕小蜂在寄生与生态位方面存在进化约束。研究结果将有助于理解鸡嗉子榕小蜂群落组成的生态驱动机制。
英文摘要:
      Symbiotic interaction between fig wasps and figs ( Ficus spp. ) perhaps represent an ideal quantified model for community assemblage and driving forces behind community function studies,and will allow comparative difference of multifunctional guilds and their ecological impact on the host plants. Based on the data of fig wasps and itself galls in the male Ficus semicordata Buchanan-Hamilton ex Smith figs,we used the path analysis and linear mixed model to reveal the trophic interactions of five associated chalcidoid wasp species and niche participation of reproductive galls for the different guilds,and to provide a useful insight into the species interdependence and their diet implication. The results showed fig wasp community associated with F. semicordata usually contained three or four co-occurrence species in a single fig. The rate of co-occurrence for three or four species was 37.06% or 35.53% ,respectively. The pollinator Ceratosolen gravelyi Grandi,inquiline Sycophaga cunia Joseph and parasitoid Sycoscapter trifemmensis Joseph were the most co-occurrence species within individual figs. There were significant differences between total number of each species within individual figs. According the path analysis results,all of inquilines Philotrypesis dunia Joseph,S. cunia and parasitoid S. trifemmensis had specific positive correlation with the exclusive pollinator C. gravelyi,in addition parasitoid Aprocrypta sp. were also positive correlation with the P. dunia. However,S. cunia imposed a negative effect on the P. dunia. Galls contained the different species of five chalcidoid wasps had obviously spatial stratification. The majority of pollinator C. gravelyi mainly occupied more outside-located ovules,with the longer pedicel. Most non-pollinating fig wasps could oviposit into the mid- and inside-located ovules that had shorted pedicel. Furthermore,male wasps of each species were closer to external side than female wasps of each species. No statistically significances on the gall sizes were found in any of fig wasp species and its sexes,and which suggested different functional guilds including galler,inquiline and parasitoid had an evolutionary constraint on colonization and niche differentiations. These results were beneficial to understand ecological driver of fig wasp community organization in the F. semicordata.
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