梁铭荣,刘珍,陈涛,岳鑫璐,宋士成,焦宇廷,陆永跃,许益镌,王磊,2022,三种植物源药剂对红火蚁的防治效果评估及其对本地蚂蚁群落影响[J].环境昆虫学报,44(6):1569-1581
三种植物源药剂对红火蚁的防治效果评估及其对本地蚂蚁群落影响
Evaluation of three botanical pesticides against the fire ant Solenopsis invicta and their impacts on native ant species
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  红火蚁  植物源农药  灌巢  群落多样性
英文关键词:Solenopsis invicta  botanical insecticides  mound drench  diversity
基金项目:教育部“蓝火计划”(惠州)产学研联合创新资金(CXZJHZ201817);国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFD1000500);深圳市农业科技促进中心项目(2022090004zbzjbc);广东省农业产业技术体系创新团队项目(2022KJ134)
作者单位
梁铭荣,刘珍,陈涛,岳鑫璐,宋士成,焦宇廷,陆永跃,许益镌,王磊 1. 华南农业大学植物保护学院广州 5106422. 深圳市农业科技促进中心深圳 518057
3.浙江天丰生物科学有限公司
浙江金华321000 
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中文摘要:
      红火蚁Solenopsis invicta Buren是一种危险性入侵害虫,可对人类健康、农林业生产、公共安全和生态系统产生严重的负面影响。目前,化学农药是防治红火蚁的主要方法。然而,大多数化学农药并不适用于有机农场、水产养殖区等生态敏感区。为筛选出用于生态敏感区红火蚁防治的药剂,本文结合室内和田间试验评估了植物源杀虫剂苦参碱Matrine、鱼藤酮Rotenone和除虫菊素Pyrethrin对红火蚁的防治效果。室内试验结果表明,苦参碱、鱼藤酮和除虫菊素对红火蚁均具有较高的毒性。田间试验表明,25.00 mg/L和12.50 mg/L苦参碱、250.00 mg/L 和125 mg/L鱼藤酮、75.00 mg/L和37.50 mg/L除虫菊素灌巢处理,红火蚁蚁巢减退率分别达到100%、81.25%、87.50%、79.17%、71.73%和66.67%。然而,除25.00 mg/L苦参碱外,其他处理均导致在被灌巢的蚁巢周围短期内出现新蚁巢。灌巢处理后,处理区的蚂蚁多样性指数和均匀度指数升高,优势度指数下降。综上所述,苦参碱、鱼藤酮和除虫菊素适合灌巢处理防治红火蚁,其中0.5%苦参碱可溶性液剂能有效降低红火蚁种群数量,使得蚁巢减退率达100%,同时对本地蚂蚁群落没有负面影响,因此该商品制剂在红火蚁防治方面具有较好的开发潜力。
英文摘要:
      The red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren is an invasive species that have seriously negative impact on agriculture, ecology, public safety, and human health in its invaded regions. Currently, chemical treatment is the main method for fire ant control. However, most chemicals are not suitable for ecologically sensitive areas, including organic farms, water resource regions, etc. To screen chemicals for controlling fire ants in ecologically sensitive areas, the control effects of three botanical pesticides, matrine, rotenone, and pyrethrin, against fire ants were evaluated under laboratory and field in this study. The results of laboratory bioassays showed that matrine, rotenone, and pyrethrin had significant toxicity against fire ants. The field trials showed that the mortality of fire ant mounds reached 100%, 81.25%, 87.50%, 79.17%, 71.73% and 66.67% under the 25.00 mg/L and 12.50 mg/L matrine, 250 mg/L and 125 mg/L rotenone, and 75 mg/L and 37.5 mg/L pyrethrin mound drench treatments, respectively. However, all these treatments caused new satellite mounds around treated mounds except 25.00 mg/L matrine after treatment. Investigations showed that the species diversity index and species evenness index increased, and the species dominance index decreased in treatment plots after mound drench with botanical pesticides, suggesting that the diversity of ants increased. This study suggested that matrine, rotenone, and pyrethrin are suitable for fire ant management by mound drench. The commercial product of 0.5% matrine soluble concentrate are effectively on fire ants control which caused 100% morality of fire ant mounds in the field.
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