孙莉,郑月琼,陈霞,陈达嵩,郑晨昕,2022,4种杀螨剂对二斑叶螨的毒力测定和对少毛钝绥螨的安全性评价[J].环境昆虫学报,(5):1333-1340
4种杀螨剂对二斑叶螨的毒力测定和对少毛钝绥螨的安全性评价
Toxicity of four acaricides to Tetranychus urticae Koch and safety assessment to Proprioseiopsis asetus(Chant)(Acari: Phytoseiidae)
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  少毛钝绥螨  二斑叶螨  杀螨剂  毒力  安全性评价
英文关键词:Proprioseiopsis asetus Chant  Tetranychus urticae Koch  acaricides  toxicity  safety assessment
基金项目:福建省自然基金(2020J011355);国家重点研发计划(2021YFD1400800);福建省省属公益类科研专项(2020R1024001,2020R1024006);科技创新团队建设(CXTD2021016);5511项目(XTCXGC2021011);福建省农业科学院农业科技专项(YDXM2021002,ZYTS2021005)
作者单位
孙莉,郑月琼,陈霞,陈达嵩,郑晨昕 1. 福建省农业科学院植物保护研究所福建省农作物害虫天敌资源工程技术研究中心福建省作物有害生物监测与治理重点实验室福建省作物有害生物绿色防控工程研究中心福州 3500132. 福建省泉州市农业学校福建泉州 362000 
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中文摘要:
      为评价杀螨剂对二斑叶螨Tetranychus urticae Koch的毒力和对少毛钝绥螨Proprioseiopsis asetus Chant的安全性,本文采用叶片喷雾法测定了4种田间常用杀螨剂对少毛钝绥螨和二斑叶螨的毒力,并分析比较了4种杀螨剂对少毛钝绥螨和二斑叶螨的选择毒力。试验结果表明,4种杀螨剂对少毛钝绥螨雌成螨和二斑叶螨雌成螨的毒力选择指数大小依次为:联苯肼酯(10.1261)>阿维菌素(5.4664)>哒螨灵(3.5293)>克螨特(2.3615)。联苯肼酯对少毛钝绥螨的毒力选择指数最高,具有中度正向选择性,即联苯肼酯对少毛钝绥螨的毒力明显低于其对二斑叶螨的毒力。阿维菌素、哒螨灵、克螨特对少毛钝绥螨和二斑叶螨的毒力选择指数也都大于1,但都小于10,即这3种杀螨剂对少毛钝绥螨和二斑叶螨都有较低的正向选择性。4种杀螨剂常规使用浓度下对少毛钝绥螨雌成螨的安全系数大小依次为:联苯肼酯>阿维菌素>哒螨灵>克螨特。联苯肼酯的安全系数为16.8935~24.4025,阿维菌素的安全系数为5.5782~22.3127,均大于5,表示联苯肼酯和阿维菌素在推荐使用浓度的低浓度情况下,对少毛钝绥螨的安全性高。而15%哒螨灵乳油和73%克螨特乳油的安全系数仅1.1709~1.7564和1.0523~1.5807,在推荐使用浓度的低浓度情况下,对少毛钝绥螨的安全性一般。因此建议在生产中应用少毛钝绥螨进行生物防治时,可优先选用联苯肼酯和阿维菌素配合使用,而不建议使用哒螨灵和克螨特。
英文摘要:
      In order to clarify toxicity of acaricides to Tetranychus urticae Koch, safety assessment to Proprioseiopsis asetus(Chant), and coordinate the relationship between biological control and chemical control, the toxicities of four acaricides of the P. asetus and T. urticae were tested by using the leaf spray method. The results showed that the order of selective toxicities of 4 acaricides to female adults of P. asetus and T. urticae was: bifenazate(10.1261)>avermectin(5.4664)>pyridaben(3.5293)>propargite(2.3615). Bifenazate had the highest selective toxicity ratio and moderate positive selectivity both on P. asetus and T. urticae. Avermectin, pyridaben and propargite showed low positive selectivity both on P. asetus and T. urticae. The results showed that within the recommended concentration range, the order of the safety and safety factor of four acaricides against P. asetus was: bifenazate(16.8935~24.4025)>avermectin(5.5782~22.3127)>pyridaben(1.1709~1.7564)>propargite(1.0523~1.5807). The safety factor of both bifenazate and avermectin were greater than 5, indicating that bifenazate and avermectin were highly safe to P. asetus. The results showed when using P. asetus to control harmful mites, application of pyridaben and propargite should be avoided in the field, and if necessary, low concentrations of bifenazate and avermectins can be used.
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