张江超,刘强,黄家兴,高飞,陈敏,马卫华,姜玉锁,2022,梨花和油菜花朵特征对蜜蜂访花偏爱性的影响[J].环境昆虫学报,(4):910-920
梨花和油菜花朵特征对蜜蜂访花偏爱性的影响
Effects of flower characteristics of pear and rape on flower-visiting preference of honeybees
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  蜜蜂  访花偏爱性    油菜  花朵特征
英文关键词:Honeybee  flower-visiting preference  pear  rape  flower characteristics
基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系资助(CARS-44-KXJ22)
作者单位
张江超,刘强,黄家兴,高飞,陈敏,马卫华,姜玉锁 1. 山西农业大学动物科学学院山西太谷 0308012. 延安市桥北国有林管理局陕西延安 7160003. 中国农业科学院蜜蜂研究所农业部传粉昆虫生物学重点实验室北京 1000934. 山西农业大学园艺学院太原 030031 
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中文摘要:
      为探究蜜蜂访花偏爱性与花朵特征之间的相互关系,本研究进行了砀山酥梨Pyrus bretshneideri Dangshan、巴梨Pyrus communis Bartlett、黄梨Pyrus bretschneideri Huang和油菜Brassica campestris L.蜜蜂访花行为的观察,及其花朵特征:花蜜糖含量(液相色谱示差折光检测法)、花粉中18种氨基酸含量(氨基酸自动分析仪法)及挥发性物质(固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术)的检测和分析。结果表明:9∶00-17∶00,油菜的访花蜜蜂数量数量多于砀山酥梨;7∶00-17∶00,巴梨的访花蜜蜂数量均高于黄梨和砀山酥梨;油菜的蜜蜂访花频率(28.35 朵/min)显著高于巴梨(19.91 朵/min)、黄梨(18.02 朵/min)、砀山酥梨(11.72 朵/min),且巴梨、黄梨的显著高于砀山酥梨(P<0.05)。巴梨花蜜蔗糖含量为0.001 mg/mL,显著低于砀山酥梨和黄梨(0.194 mg/mL、0.112 mg/mL)。花粉氨基酸各组分占比基本相同,巴梨半胱氨酸(Cys)高于其它,砀山酥梨精氨酸(Arg)高于油菜。黄梨、砀山酥梨、巴梨和油菜的花朵分别检测出21、21、28和22种挥发性物质。其中萜烯类(40.23%)、柠檬烯(6.58%)在油菜中相对含量最高,仅在油菜中检测到石竹烯(8.67%)、α-法呢烯(2.42%),只在巴梨中检测到芳樟醇(4.43%)。由此可见,蜜蜂可能偏爱访问花蜜蔗糖含量少、花粉中低含量的Cys和高含量的Arg的花朵,而且蜜蜂的访花偏爱性可能与萜烯类、柠檬烯、芳樟醇、石竹烯等物质在挥发性物质中的相对含量有关。这为下一步诱导蜜蜂为梨树授粉提供理论参考。
英文摘要:
      To explore the relationship between flower-visiting preference of honeybees and flower characteristics, the flower-visiting behavior of honeybees was observed on Pyrus bretshneideri Dangshan, Pyrus communis Bartlett, Pyrus bretschneideri Huang and Brassica campestris L., and its flower characteristics were determined and anylazed: Sugar content (reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatogram refractive index detector ), 18 kinds of amino acid content in pollen (automatic amino acid analyzer) and volatile compound (solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology). The results showed that the number of flower-visiting honeybees in rape was more than that in Dangshan pear from 9∶00 to 17∶00. From 7∶00 to 17∶00, the number of flower-visiting honeybees in Bartlett pear was higher than that in Huang pear and Dangshan pear. The flower-visiting frequency of honeybees in rape (28.35 flowers /min) was significantly higher than that in Bartlett pear (19.91 flowers /min), Huang pear (18.02 flowers /min) and Dangshan pear (11.72 flowers /min) (P<0.05) . The flower-visiting frequency of honeybees in Bartlett pear and Huang pear was significantly higher than that in Dangshan pear (P<0.05). The sucrose content of Bartlett pear was 0.001 mg/mL, which was significantly lower than that of Dangshan pear and Huangpear (0.194 mg/mL, 0.112 mg/mL). The proportion of each amino acid component in 4 kinds of pollens was basically the same, but Cysteine (Cys) of Bartlett pear was higher than that of others, and Arginine (Arg) of Dangshan pear was higher than that of rape. 21, 21, 28 and 22 volatile compounds were detected in Huang pear, Dangshan pear, Bartlett pear and rape. Among them, the relative contents of terpenes (40.23%) and limonene (6.58%) were the highest in rape, only caryophyllene (8.67%) and α-farnesene (2.42%) were detected in rape, and only linalol (4.43%) was detected in Bartlett pear. In conclusion, honeybees might prefer to visit flowers with low sucrose content in nectar, and low Cys content and high Arg content in pollen, and the flower-visiting preference of honeybees might be related to the relative contents of terpenes, limonene, linalol, caryophyllene and other substances in flower volatile compounds. This provided a theoretical reference for inducing honeybees to pollinate pear.
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