许冬,李文静,王玲,尹海辰,丛胜波,杨妮娜,谢原利,万鹏,2022,草地贪夜蛾对2种豆科蔬菜的取食和产卵选择性及其适应性研究[J].环境昆虫学报,(4):800-807
草地贪夜蛾对2种豆科蔬菜的取食和产卵选择性及其适应性研究
Feeding and oviposition preference and adaptability of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera Noctuidae), on two leguminous vegetables
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  草地贪夜蛾  豇豆  四季豆  取食选择  产卵选择
英文关键词:Spodoptera frugiperda  cowpea  kidney bean  feeding selectivity  oviposition selectivity
基金项目:湖北省农业科技创新行动项目(NYKJ2019011)
作者单位
许冬,李文静,王玲,尹海辰,丛胜波,杨妮娜,谢原利,万鹏 1.湖北省农业科学院植保土肥研究所农业农村部华中作物有害生物综合治理重点实验室农作物重大病虫草害防控湖北省重点实验室武汉 4300642. 湖北省植物保护总站武汉 430070 
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中文摘要:
      草地贪夜蛾Spodoptera frugiperda是一种多食性昆虫,为明确该害虫对不同寄主的选择性和适生性,本文比较了草地贪夜蛾对玉米Zea mays、豇豆Vigna unguiculata和四季豆Phaseolus vulgaris等3种寄主的取食及产卵偏好性,并分析了取食不同寄主对其生长发育及繁殖的影响。结果表明:草地贪夜蛾低龄幼虫(初孵幼虫和2龄)对玉米叶和豇豆叶表现出取食偏好性,而高龄幼虫(3龄和5龄)对3种寄主不同组织的取食选择性无明显差异;草地贪夜蛾取食3种寄主植物均可以完成世代发育,但取食豇豆叶和四季豆叶的幼虫历期、蛹历期显著变短,化蛹率、羽化率显著降低;取食豇豆叶对其蛹重、成虫寿命无显著影响,但取食四季豆叶的蛹重显著变轻、雄成虫寿命显著变短;种群生命表参数显示,草地贪夜蛾在3种寄主上的繁殖力表现为玉米叶(1 138.29)>豇豆叶(1 179.00)>四季豆叶(585.50),处理间差异显著;取食2种非嗜好寄主的种群内禀增长率(rm)和周限增长率(λ)均显著降低,平均世代历期(T)显著延长,取食豇豆叶的雌雄性比显著降低;草地贪夜蛾对寄主玉米具有明显的产卵偏好性,选择豇豆和四季豆的产卵量仅占植物着卵量的4.19%和18.23%,显著低于玉米着卵量。结果表明草地贪夜蛾偏好选择玉米进行取食和产卵,但在豇豆和四季豆寄主植物上可以实现种群繁衍,当其种群密度大时存在转移为害豇豆和四季豆的潜在风险。
英文摘要:
      Spodoptera frugiperda is a polyphagous insect. To clarify the feeding selectivity and adaptability of S. frugiperda to different host plants, Zea mays, Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris were used to study the effects of not only the feeding and oviposition preference but also the development and reproduction of S. frugiperda. The results showed that the early-instar larvae of S. frugiperda (the neonate and 2nd-instar larvae) presented significant feeding preference to the leaves of maize and cowpea, while the higher instar larvae (the 3rd-instar and 5th-instar larvae) had no significant difference in the feeding selectivity of leaves or pods of the three host plants. S. frugiperda could successfully complete its life cycle when fed on the three tested plants, but the larval period, pupal duration, pupation rate and adult emergence rate were significantly shorter when it feed on cowpea and kidney bean. There was no significant difference in the pupal weight and adult longevity fed on both maize and cowpea, while the larvae feeding on kidney pea had lower pupal weight and longevity of male adults. The parameters of population life table showed that the reproductions of S. frugiperda feeding maize, cowpea and kidney were 1 138.29 eggs>1 179.45 eggs>585.50 eggs respectively, which was significantly different among the three host plants. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and finite rate of increase (λ) feeding on two non-addicted host plants were lower, the generation time (T) was longer, and the female to male ratio was lower on cowpea. In the oviposition selectivity tests, the maize was more readily chosen host for oviposition of S. frugiperda, the number of eggs laid on cowpea and kidney bean were accounting for 4.19% and 18.23% of the total number of eggs laid on all plants, which was significantly lower with on maize. These results indicated that S. frugiperda had a much higher feeding and oviposition preference to maize, and it could also finish reproduction on cowpea and kidney bean, which suggested a potential threat to cowpea and kidney bean when it was in high population density.
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