赵萌,吴文珊,陈友铃,陈杨菲,2022,蛹期薜荔榕小蜂的人工气候箱培养[J].环境昆虫学报,(2):446-452
蛹期薜荔榕小蜂的人工气候箱培养
Artificial climate incubator culture of Wiebesia pumilae(Hymenoptera:Agaonidae)in pupal stage
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  预蛹  发育时长  温度  虫瘿含水率  寿命
英文关键词:Prepupa  developmental duration  temperature  water content of gall  longevity
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31670431);福建省自然科学基金(2020J01179)
作者单位
赵萌,吴文珊,陈友铃,陈杨菲 福建师范大学生命科学学院福建省发育与神经生物学重点实验室福州 350108 
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中文摘要:
      薜荔瘦果具有食用价值,但其结实依赖薜荔榕小蜂传粉。本研究利用人工气候箱培养蛹期薜荔榕小蜂,以期在蜂源缺失的季节为开花薜荔输送传粉蜂。研究结果表明:28℃条件下小蜂的发育时长为27 d,比同期自然条件下的小蜂发育时长缩短53 d,雌蜂平均出飞率为51.90%,雄蜂出飞时将果瓣合并,可提高24.27%的雌蜂出飞率,果瓣内层的小蜂出飞率极显著高于外层。在28℃培养的小蜂羽化时的虫瘿含水率为16.78%,极显著低于野生对照组(51.63%, P < 0.01),虫瘿脱水硬化增加了小蜂破壳出飞的难度。雌蜂有自主破壳出飞的能力,但出飞率仅15.11%,极显著低于野生对照组(86.22%, P<0.01),表明雄蜂在虫瘿壳上开掘的交配孔有助于雌蜂出飞。人工培养的小蜂寿命为8.7 d,与野生携粉出飞的小蜂寿命相比,存在极显著差异(10.8 d, P=0.002),但与野生不携粉小蜂之间无明显差异(9.0 d, P=0.416),表明花粉可能对延长小蜂寿命有重要作用。研究结果为榕-蜂共生体系的生态修复提供参考依据。
英文摘要:
      The achene of Ficus pumila L. var. pumila has edible value, but F. pumila depends on the pollination of Wiebesia pumilae (Hill) Wiebes, so that it can bear fruit. In this study, we used the artificial climate incubator cultivate W. pumilae pupae in order to transport pollinating wasps for flowering F. pumila during the season when pollinating wasps are missing. The results showed: Under the condition of 28℃, the developmental duration of the wasps was 27 d, which was 53 d shorter than that in the wild at the same period, the average eclosion rate of female wasps was 51.90%; the figs can be merged to increase the eclosion rate of female wasps by 24.27% when the male wasps flew out, and the eclosion rate of the inner layer of figs was significantly higher than that of the outer layer. The water content of galls was 16.78% when the fig wasps emerged at 28℃ in the climate incubator culture, which was significantly lower than that for the wild (51.63%, P<0.01), the galls were hardening after dehydration that increased the difficulty for the wasps to bite through the gall shell to fly out. The female wasps had the ability of independent eclosion, but the eclosion rate was only 15.11%, which was significantly lower than that in the wild (86.22%, P<0.01), and indicated that the copulatory apertures dug by male wasps were helpful to the eclosion of female wasps. There's quite a noticeable difference in longevity between the artificial cultured wasps (8.7 d) and pollen-carried wasps in the wild (10.8 d, P=0.002), but there was no significant difference between the artificial cultured wasps and the wasps without pollen (9.0 d, P=0.416), which indicated that pollen maybe play an important role in prolonging the longevity of wasps. The results provided a reference for the ecological restoration of the fig-fig wasp symbiotic system.
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