秦加敏,丁桂玲,黄家兴,苏睿,杨爽,宋文菲,梁铖,2022,云南短头熊蜂的繁育特性研究[J].环境昆虫学报,(2):440-445
云南短头熊蜂的繁育特性研究
Colony reproductive characteristics of Bombus breviceps in Yunnan of China
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  熊蜂  饲养  农业授粉  地理分布
英文关键词:Bumblebee  rearing  agricultural pollination  geographical distribution
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31860685);云南省农业科学院应用基础研究专项(YJM201807);国家蜂产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-45-SYZI7);云南省科技厅-云南大学联合基金我(2019FY003026)
作者单位
秦加敏,丁桂玲,黄家兴,苏睿,杨爽,宋文菲,梁铖 1.云南省农业科学院蚕桑蜜蜂研究所云南蒙自 6611012.中国农业科学院蜜蜂研究所农业农村部授粉昆虫生物学重点开放实验室北京 100093 
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中文摘要:
      短头熊蜂Bombus breviceps是云南省优势蜂种,为更好地挖掘本土熊蜂资源,繁育农业授粉蜂群,本研究从云南3个地区(屏边、个旧和昆明)收集短头熊蜂蜂王后,在相同条件下饲养,统计分析其蜂王产卵前期、工蜂发育期、蜂群生长特性、群势、产卵蜂王率及蜂群可应用率等繁育特性指标。结果表明:3个地区工蜂的发育期相同,屏边地区的蜂王产卵前期最长,蜂群始见工蜂时间及工蜂数量达到6头、30头和60头的时间也最长,均显著高于个旧地区和昆明地区(P<0.05)。3个地区短头熊蜂的群势差异不显著(P>0.05),但昆明地区的工蜂数量最少,显著低于屏边地区和个旧地区(P<0.05),而子代蜂王数量显著高于屏边地区和个旧地区(P<0.05),雄性蜂数量显著高于屏边地区(P<0.05)。昆明地区的产卵蜂王率和蜂群可应用率高于屏边地区和个旧地区。总体而言,云南的短头熊蜂群势强,产卵蜂王率75%以上,蜂群可应用率均在63%以上,易于人工繁育,具有重要的授粉利用价值。
英文摘要:
      Bombus breviceps is the dominant bumblebee species in Yunnan Province of China. To make better use of native bumblebees and provide commercial colonies for pollination, the queens of B. breviceps were collected from three different regions of Yunnan Province (Pingbian, Gejiu and Kunming) and reared under the same laboratory conditions. The colony development traits were recorded and compared, including the period for queen's first oviposition; the developmental time for the first batch of workers; the intervals from colony initiation to colony sizes of 6, 30 and 60 workers; colony size; the egg laying rate of field-collected queens and the saleable colony production rate (rate of colonies with no less than 50~60 workers). The development period of the first batch of workers showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The period for first oviposition and intervals from colony initiation to colony sizes of 6, 30 and 60 workers were significantly longer in colonies initiated by queens collected from Pingbian than that from Gejiu and Kunming (P<0.05). There were no significant difference in colony sizes (P>0.05), while colonies initiated by queens collected from Kunming produced remarkably less number of workers and higher number of gynes than that from Pingbian and Gejiu (P<0.05). They also produced more males than that from Pingbian (P<0.05). The egg laying rate of queens and the saleable colony production rate from Kunming was higher than that from Pingbian and Gejiu. Overall, the colony sizes of B. breviceps were large in the three regions, with oviposition rate, and the availability colony rate were more than 75%, and 63%, respectively. This study indicated that B. breviceps had the potential for commercial rearing.
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