苏湘宁,李传瑛,许益镌,黄少华,刘伟玲,廖章轩,章玉苹,2022,草地贪夜蛾对5种寄主植物和6种杂草的取食选择性和适应性[J].环境昆虫学报,(2):263-272
草地贪夜蛾对5种寄主植物和6种杂草的取食选择性和适应性
Feeding preference and adaptability of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda on five species of host plants and six weeds
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  草地贪夜蛾  作物  杂草  取食选择性  适应性
英文关键词:Spodoptera frugiperda  crop  weed  feeding preference  adaptability
基金项目:广东省重点领域研发计划项目(2020B020223004);国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD0300104);广东省现代农业产业技术体系创新团队(2021KJ113);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0200702-4);2020年广东省乡村振兴战略专项“粤财农【2020】100号”;广东省农业科学院科技创新战略专项(R2019YJ-YB2003)
作者单位
苏湘宁,李传瑛,许益镌,黄少华,刘伟玲,廖章轩,章玉苹 1.广东省农业科学院植物保护研究所广东省植物保护新技术重点实验室广州 5106402.华南农业大学昆虫学系广州 510642 
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中文摘要:
      为明确草地贪夜蛾Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith对不同寄主植物和主要杂草的取食选择及适应性,以玉米Zea mays、甘蔗Saccharum officinarum、花生Arachis hypogaea、大豆Glycine max、香蕉Musa nana、稗草Echinochloa crusgalli、马唐Digitaria sanguinalis、牛筋草Eleusine indica、莎草Cyperus rotundus、马齿苋Portulaca oleracea、鹅肠草Malachium aquaticum作为寄主,采用叶碟法测定草地贪夜蛾各龄幼虫对5种寄主植物和6种杂草的取食偏好,并测定了不同虫态的发育历期、单头蛹重、化蛹率以及单雌产卵量等。结果表明,草地贪夜蛾在5种寄主植物和6种杂草上均可完成世代发育。寄主作物中,香蕉处理的草地贪夜蛾成虫前期最长,为29.66 d;甘蔗处理下草地贪夜蛾蛹重和化蛹率分别为250.44 mg和71.67%,显著低于玉米和花生处理的蛹重和化蛹率;草地贪夜蛾取食花生后单雌产卵量最高,为768.93粒,与玉米上产卵量差异不显著,香蕉上最低,为498.76粒;1~2龄幼虫对玉米和香蕉的取食选择率有显著差异,3~6龄幼虫对玉米取食选择率显著高于其他寄主植物。6种杂草中取食莎草的成虫前期最长30.21 d,且单雌产卵量最低526.33粒;取食鹅肠草蛹重最低188.00 mg;取食马齿苋化蛹率最低为72.37%;草地贪夜蛾取食马唐后其蛹重、化蛹率、单雌产卵量最高,与取食其它5种杂草有显著性差异;2~4龄幼虫更偏向取食马唐,与其它5种差异显著。研究结果表明:寄主植物种类对草地贪夜蛾的生长发育有显著影响,其中草地贪夜蛾对玉米和马唐具有较高的取食偏好。
英文摘要:
      In order to clarify the feeding selectivity and adaptability of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, to different host plants and weeds. Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum, Arachis hypogaea, Glycine max, Musa nana, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Cyperus rotundus, Portulaca oleracea and Malachium aquaticum were selected as the experimental hosts, and the feeding preferences of different instars of FAW on five species of host plants and six species of weeds were determined by leaf disc method. Measuring the developmental duration of larvae, pupa weight, percentage of pupation and mean number of eggs laid per female. The results showed that FAW could complete the development when fed with five species of host plants and six species of weeds, respectively. FAW had the longest pre-adult on M. nana among the host crops, which was 29.66 d; Pupal weight and pupation rate of FAW on S. officinarum were 250.44 mg and 71.67% significantly lower than on Z. mays and A. hypogaea; there was the most eggs on A. hypogaea (768.93) and had no significantly different with Z. mays, and the least on M. nana (498.76); feeding selection rate of 1st~2nd instar larvae on Z. mays and M. nana were significantly different. Feeding selection rate of 3rd~6th instar larvae on Z. mays was significantly higher than on the other host plants. FAW had the longest pre-adult and the least eggs on C. rotundus among six species of weeds, which were 30.21 d and 526.33 grains; Pupal weight on M. aquaticum and pupation rate on P. oleracea of FAW were 188.00 mg and 72.37% significantly lower than on the other weeds; there were the highest pupal weight, pupation rate and the most eggs on D. sanguinalis were significantly different with on other five species of weeds; The 2nd~4th instar larvae of FAW was more inclined to D. sanguinalis, which was significantly different with on other five species of weeds. The results showed that: Host plant species were significant influence in the growth and development in FAW. FAW had a much higher preference to Z. mays and D. sanguinalis than others.
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