草地贪夜蛾的有效积温和发育始点与发生世代预测
The developmental zeros,the effective accumulative temperatures and the number of generations of Spodoptera frugiperda in Shandong
投稿时间:2021-05-11  修订日期:2021-09-24
DOI:
中文关键词:  草地贪夜蛾  发育历期  有效积温  发育始点  世代
英文关键词:Spodoptera frugiperda  developmental durations  developmental zeros  effective accumulative temperature  generation
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0200604);山东现代化农业产业体系(SDAIT-02-10)
作者单位地址
刘小宇 山东农业大学植物保护学院 山东省泰安市泰山区岱宗大街61号山东农业大学
荣志云 山东省荣成市上庄镇人民政府 
王连刚 山东省青岛市农业技术推广中心植物保护处 
姚超 山东省泰安市气象局 
张路生 山东省滨州市植保站 
迟金强 山东省威海市农业农村事务服务中心 
林倩 山东省烟台市农业技术推广中心 
董秀霞 聊城市茌平区农业农村局 
姚晓灵 山东农业大学植物保护学院 
徐德坤 山东省临沂市植保站 
萧玉涛 中国农业科学研究院深圳基因组研究所 
李向东 山东农业大学植物保护学院 
郑方强 山东农业大学植物保护学院 山东省泰安市泰山区岱宗大街61号
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中文摘要:
      草地贪夜蛾Spodoptera frugiperda Smith自2019年6月入侵山东后,同年发现于山东部分地区为害夏玉米,对玉米生产形成威胁。为了明确温度对该害虫的影响和在山东不同地区的发生世代数,进行了温度对其生长发育、生存的研究,测定了其适温范围、发育始点和有效积温,并按地理位置预测了不同地区的发生世代数,为草地贪夜蛾在各地区的监测预警和科学防治提供了理论依据。室内设置6个梯度温度(15℃、18℃、21℃、24℃、27℃、30 ℃),以新鲜嫩玉米粒为食料饲喂幼虫,观察了不同温度下草地贪夜蛾各阶段的发育历期和存活率,利用直线回归法和直接最优法计算该害虫各虫态/虫龄的发育始点和有效积温,并根据山东各地区的月平均气温数据计算理论发生世代数。在温度设置范围内,15℃时,幼虫和蛹死亡率显著最高,分别为22.57%、85.71%;18℃时,幼虫和蛹死亡率分别为21.09%、23.19%;15℃时卵发育至蛹的死亡率为97.37%,18℃为51.82%。根据直线回归法计算草地贪夜蛾卵、幼虫、蛹、全世代的发育始点分别为14.16℃、14.00℃、14.77℃、12.72℃,有效积温为38.21日·度、155.42日·度、114.36日·度、523.33日·度;直接最优法的发育始点分别为13.41℃、14.39℃、15.12℃、13.30℃,有效积温为41.96日·度、149.20日·度、110.47日·度、497.78日·度。根据发育始点和有效积温分别计算各地的年理论发生世代数,鲁北地区发生3.6~3.9代,鲁南地区发生3.5~3.7代,鲁中地区发生3.5~3.8代,鲁西地区发生3.2~3.5代;胶东半岛地区2.5~3.4代。适宜草地贪夜蛾生长发育的温度为24℃~30℃;山东各地区草地贪夜蛾理论发生世代之间存在差异,将其发生世代的不同大体分为胶东半岛2.5~3.5代区,鲁西3.0~3.5代区,鲁中、鲁南、鲁北为3.5~4.0代区,表现为南北向地区差异不大,东西向地区有较大差异。
英文摘要:
      Spodoptera frugiperda Smith, the fall armyworm, invaded Shandong province in June, 2019 and then destroyed maize in many areas, posing a great threat to the local maize production. The effects of temperatures on the growth and survival of Spodoptera frugiperda in Shandong province were studied, and the developmental zeros and the effective accumulative temperatures of the pest were determined, the number of occurrence generations of Spodoptera frugiperda in five representative regions was predicted. All the research provided theoretical basis for monitoring, prediction and scientific control of the pest. Spodoptera frugiperda larvae fed with fresh maize kernels were reared at constant series temperatures (15℃, 18℃, 21℃, 24 ℃, 27℃ and 30℃) in the laboratory. The durations and survival rates of different developmental stages were observed. The developmental zeros and the effective accumulative temperatures of Spodoptera frugiperda at each stage/instar and the whole generations were determined by the linear regression method and the direct optimal method, and the theoretical number of generations was calculated according to the meteorological data in Shandong province. From 15℃ to 30℃, the developmental durations of each stage and the whole generations were significantly shortened with the increase of temperatures. At 15℃, the mortality rates of larvae and pupae were 22.57% and 85.71%; at 18℃, the mortality rates of larvae and pupae were 21.09% and 23.19% respectively. The mortalities of preadults (from eggs to pupae) were 97.37% at 15℃ and 51.82% at 18℃. According to the linear regression method, the developmental zeros of eggs, larvae, pupae, whole generations were 14.16℃, 14.00℃, 14.77℃, 12.72℃, respectively and the effective accumulative temperatures were 38.21 day·degree, 155.42 day·degree, 114.36 day·degree and 523.33 day·degree respectively; Based on the direct optimization method, the developmental zeros of eggs, larvae, pupae, whole generation were 13.41℃, 14.39℃, 15.12℃, 13.30℃, respectively and the effective accumulative temperatures were 96 day·degree, 149. 20 day·degree, 110. 47 day·degree, 497.78 day·degree, respectively. According to the developmental zeros and the effective accumulative temperatures from five representative regions, the theoretical number of generations in five representative regions of Shandong province was calculated, which was 3.6~3.9 generations in Northern Shandong, 3.5~3.7 generations in Southern Shandong, 3.5~3.8 generations in Central Shandong, 3.2~3.5 generations in Western Shandong and 2.5~3.4 generation in Jiaodong Peninsula (Eastern Shandong). The results show that the suitable temperature range for the growth and survival of Spodoptera frugiperda is 24℃~30℃; the theoretical number of generations of Spodoptera frugiperda in Shandong are roughly divided into 2.5~3.5 generations in Jiaodong Peninsula, 3.0~3.5 generations in Western Shandong, and 3.5~4.0 generations in Central, Southern and Northern Shandong.
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